Non-State-Actors and the Subterranean Dimension
This study explores the use of the subterranean dimension (tunnels, bunkers, shelters) by non-state-actors across time and place. The study reveals that from antiquity rebel groups have exploited below-ground structures, artificial and manmade, to preserve their force and to attack superior enemies. The decision of rebellious NSAs to exploit the subterranean dimension has been the result of their physical and social environment, their operational approach and ability to execute it, accessible technology, relationships with the civilian population, impact of culture and myths, and counter measures by the states. Control over territory allows present NSAs to construct elaborate subterranean facilities, but new uncovering technologies introduced by Israel are endangering the NSAs’ last secure channel.