Deterrence, Resilience and Hybrid Wars: The Case of Canada and NATO

  • Dr. Nicole Jackson Simon Fraser University


This paper examines controversies over responses to hybrid warfare ranging from defensive societal and institutional resilience to  more aggressive measures, and considers some of the strengths and limits of classic deterrence theory. How Canada and NATO interpret major transformations, and the language of ‘hybrid war’ that they adopt, matter because they influence responses. Reflecting NATO’s rhetoric and policies, Canada has become more internally focused, adopting a ‘whole of government’ and increasingly ‘whole of society’ approach, while at the same time taking more offensive actions and developing new partnerships and capabilities. Canada and NATO are taking significant steps towards ‘comprehensive deterrence’, yet more clarity is needed in how responses are combined to avoid the dangers of hybrid wars with no end. 

Author Biography

Dr. Nicole Jackson, Simon Fraser University

Nicole J. Jackson (PhD LSE) is Associate Professor in International Studies, specializing in Russian and Eurasian Politics and Security Studies at the School for International Studies, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada. She is currently working on Deterrence and Canada’s role in the Baltics and Ukraine; Canadian Approaches to Cyber Threats and Digital Disinformation; and Russia’s Security Strategy in Outer Space.