Clandestine Communication in Historic China

  • Ralph Sawyer


As military forces grew in strength, tactics evolved, and warfare became more lethal in ancient China, the need for communication between the political authorities and leaders in the field, as well as among commanders and their subordinates, was increasingly recognized.

Author Biography

Ralph Sawyer
Ralph D. Sawyer, an independent historical scholar who studied at MIT and Harvard and serves as a consultant international conglomerates and defense agencies, specializes in Chinese military and intelligence issues. He is Senior Research Fellow with the Warring States Project and a Fellow of the Centre for Military and Strategic Studies.