Facing the Future: Canada’s Environmental Security Challenges in the 21st Century

Isaac Caverhill-Godkewitsch


Canada and the world face significant environmental changes in the 21st Century. This article identifies two of the most significant areas of change (the Arctic and Global Environmental Changes) in an Environmental Security (ES) lens. The method of the “Four Schools” of ES are described and applied to the two areas of concern. The findings from this paper conclude key areas for Canadian debate as well as implications for the wider application of ES studies.

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JMSS is a publication of the Centre for Military, Security and Strategic Studies at the University of Calgary.

JMSS gratefully acknowledges the financial support of the Social Science and Humanities Research Council.